Much has changed since Joseph Aspdin patented grey Portland Cement in 1824 with his son William making it commercially viable by 1842. In the 21st Century those who require cement have a vast array of solutions to choose from depending on the particular properties they require. ‘Everyday’ options other than Portland include white cement (low ferrite), rapid hardening (fine ground), masonry and sulphate resisting cements. This list continues to expand to over 20 common types of cement as manufacturers and research institutions work on new varieties and blends that can meet the challenges of the construction industry as it continues to push boundaries of the possible.
Thanks to huge advances in metallurgy over the last three decades, 21st century steel production is transforming the globe and the built environment. Of course, a major part of the steel production process is the use of coke, which provides as much as 80% of the furnace's thermal requirements, the majority of the furnace's CO gas (which acts as a reducing reagent) and carbon for dissolution in the molten metal. As with any other manufacturing process, the quality of the raw material has a massive impact on the quality of the end product. It is therefore vital to ensure the coke is comprehensively tested.
The compliance of cement with standards such as EN 197 / ASTM C 150 is a quality requirement. Quality assurance of the raw materials used in calcination and also during the clinker production is necessary. Carbolite Gero offers different furnaces that help to guarantee quality requirements are met during the production cycle.
At present, there are two main techniques used in the additive manufacturing of 3D metal parts, Electron Beam Manufacturing (EBM) and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS). These take time but are outstanding for creating complex or ‘impossible’ parts which cannot be created using traditional casting or machining methodologies. This has already resulted in the creation of a multitude of prototype pieces as well as countless ‘impossible parts’ for the aerospace, automotive, tooling and medical sectors.
The Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process is a widely known and applied technology for producing small metal parts. A great variety of materials and, consequently, approaches have been developed. The MIM process always requires a combination of polymer and metal powder. The polymer in this mixture has two purposes. On the one
hand, it serves the rheological properties that are needed for injection molding. On the other hand, it provides the mechanical stability of the so-called green parts. The metal powder itself has no mechanical stability at all in that stage of the process.
Graphite is a soft, slippery, greyish-black substance. It has a metallic luster and is opaque to light. Graphite is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Often graphite is simply named carbon. Under inert gas or vacuum graphite is extremely temperature-resistant which makes it an interesting material for high temperature applications.
Global demand for precious metals continues to soar, whether for jewellery or for use in industrial applications.
While gold and silver have been used for thousands of years in jewellery, more recently precious metals are
performing useful and specialist functions in chemical processes, electronics manufacturing, aerospace and
automotive systems, eg catalytic converters. CARBOLITE equipment is used throughout the world both for
recycling these relatively rare commodities and for assessing their purity. Two key processes in the precious
metals market are smelting and cupellation
Reliable and adequate power generation is a corner-stone of every industrialized country: an essential ingredient
for successful economies and comfortable lifestyles. While other technologies continue to be developed, solid
fuels are still extremely important. Coal provides around 30 % of global energy needs, 41 % of the world's
electricity and is used in the production of 70 % of the world's steel.
The Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies
and Systems (IKTS) in Dresden, Germany, carries
out research into advanced ceramics, ranging from
preliminary research through to a wide range of
sophisticated applications. IKTS are involved in the
development of industrial powder processing
technologies and the manufacture of prototype
structural ceramics, functional ceramics and cermet
Calcinated petcoke is an essential ingredient in the production of aluminium. Its quality needs to be monitored continuously throughout the production process to ensure a high quality metal grade. As part of its range of coke testing furnaces, Carbolite has designed a special model for determining the CO2 reactivity of petroleum coke in accordance with ISO 12981-1. The furnace has a single, vertical, tubular heating zone which is integrated into the unit, giving a neat and compact design overall.
Professor Ed Lester and Thomas Huddle, University of Nottingham, Patrick Daley, the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Carbon
Capture and Storage and Cleaner Fossil Energy, and Paul Haigh,
Carbolite Gero Ltd, UK, detail advances in ash fusion analysis.
Today techniques like pressing, rapid prototyping, powder metallurgy, siliconization and sintering are widely used production methods. Sintering, for example, is only the last step of a near-net-shape fabrication technology. Many processes, such as metal injection molding (MIM) for example, require a debinding step prior to the actual sintering.
High temperature vacuum furnaces are used for heat treatment of samples at low pressure (down to 10-6 mbar) and under partial gas atmospheres. In the bottom loader version the bottom is lowered and driven out of the furnace. It then pivots forward to permit easy loading. This design makes the useable volume accessible from all sides and allows for exact
placement of the sample thermocouples which measure the temperature of the sample.
Nowadays many electronic components, for example devices used
in satellites or aircraft, have to withstand challenging environments
such as vacuum or extremely high temperatures. To manufacture
reliable electronic components like these a connection between
dissimilar materials is required.
The high temperature furnace GLO 10 000 KE/09-1G from CARBOLITE GERO is tailored for the heat treatment of superconducting coils for CERN. The plant, which is going into full operation at the CERN site in the middle of this year, was introduced in detail to the technical press on 18 March 2016 by CARBOLITE GERO at its premises in Neuhausen.